Metalwork Terminology

Structural Metalwork

Universal Columns are the most frequently used section for construction their small depth makes them ideal for load bearing when height is limited. Due to their shape they are often referred to as “I sections” or “H Sections”. The Universal Columns width is usually roughly the same as its depth.

H Section

H Section

I Section

I Section

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just to add confusion both Universal Beams and Universal Columns are also referred to as “I sections” or “H sections” the difference is easy to spot as the depth of the Universal Beam is greater than its width. The advantage of the beam is that it has a higher loading capability, however often space is an issue and therefore a column would be used.

A Parallel Flange Channel is sometimes referred to as a “Channel” or “C Section”. The Channel is used for columns, lintels above doors to give support to floor joists. If you are using a Channel as a lintel it will need a bottom plate added to it to take the outer bricks, alternatively 2 Channels could be fixed back to back to support both leafs of a cavity wall.

C Section

C Section

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hollow Sections come as Rectangular, Square and Circular

Rectangular Hollow Section

Rectangular Hollow Section

Square Hollow Section

Square Hollow Section

Circular Hollow Section

Circular Hollow Section

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rolled Steel Angle – Equal sometimes referred as an “Equal Angle” or “L Shape”

Easy to identify as the “legs” are the same length. Usually used for structural steel brackets and cleat connections.

Equal Angle

Equal Angle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rolled Steel Angle – Unequal sometimes referred to as “Angle” or “L shape”.
Often used as lintels as with the longer leg in the vertical position it has a greater loading capacity to and Equal Angle.

Unequal Angle

Unequal Angle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flat Sections are used anywhere a connection between 2 beams is required. Flat Sections are used as base plates. end plates. Stiffeners. tabs, gussetts, splice plates. When a Flat Section is cut into smaller pieces it is called a Plate. Flat sections are often used to strengthen other beams and are sometimes used to reinforce timber joists

Flat Section

Flat Section

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metalwork Connections

Base Plate – Base Plates are used as a support for columns coming off a concrete pad or foundation.

Base Plate

Base Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

End Plate – Used to anchor the end of a beam to the wall or as part of an end plate connection

End Plate

End Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

End Plate connection – This is used to join a column to a beam or another beam onto a flange

End Plate Connection

End Plate Connection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moment Connection – Features an overhanging plate that bolts into the column. Used when a wall is replaced with a box frame that will need to withstand high wind loads from the side.

Moment Connection

Moment Connection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cleat – Used to bolt one beam into the side of another beam.

Cleat

Cleat

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spacer – beam
When space is tight a solution is to use two smaller beams and to bolt them together to ensure stability and resistance to buckling

Spacer Beam

Spacer Beam

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spacer – PFC
Used when a cavity wall needs to be supported above an opening.

Spacer PFC

Spacer PFC

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crank 90 Degrees – Used most frequently to support roof structures

Crank 90 Degrees

Crank 90 Degrees

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kink 90 degrees – Used as a bracket or when a beam needs to be supported by a colomn

Kink 90 Degrees

Kink 90 Degrees

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kink – Angle
A single kink that follows the pitch of the roof

Kink

Kink

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kink with plate – The same as a Kink Angle the plate is used when the two sections are of different sizes

Kink with Plate

Kink with Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dogleg – Often used for supporting a staircase

Dogleg

Dogleg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gusset – Usually triangular and used to provide additional stiffness

Gusset

Gusset

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bottom Plate
Usually added to the beam to support brickwork or timber joists.

Bottom Plate

Bottom Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Plate – The is a plate added to a beam when it is smaller that the wall it is carrying

Top Plate

Top Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stiffener – Provides additional stability preventing buckling

Stiffener

Stiffener

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tab – Welded onto hollow column sections to make it possible to anchor them to walls

Tab

Tab

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hole – flange
A hole drilled in column flange in order to anchor them to walls

Hole Flange

Hole Flange

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hole – web
A hole drilled into the web of the beam to enable timber joists to be fitted

Hole Web

Hole Web

 

 

 

 

 

 

Splice A1 – A Splice is required when a beam spans two party walls for ease of installation, or, when a beam of either too long or too heavy to install

Splice A1

Splice A1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Splice A3 – Is used to align two sections and would need additional support either with a column or pad stone

Splice A3

Splice A3